عنوان مقاله [English]
Critical realism is a relatively novel approach that has two important claims: first, the outer world exists independently of us, and secondly, knowledge of this world, as it is, is possible. Roy Bhaskar, who is the most prominent thinker of this approach, appreciates a great contribution for ontology in his theorizing. His first question is how the world should be so that our knowledge of it becomes possible? The answer to this question depicts a layered ontology in front of the eyes, which includes three levels of empirical, actual, and real. In addition to his view of the existence of necessity and causal mechanisms, as well as introducing the concept of the unclean in his dialectical theory, this ontology reveals similarities between his ontology and the ontology of Mulla Sadra based on the originality of existence, and this question arises in the mind as to which differences exist between these two ontologies.
Utilizing a descriptive-analytic method, this paper draws a comparison between the ontology of these two thinkers and shows that although Bhaskar, in his layered ontology, has been exceeded perceptible things by his belief in the existence of necessities and causal mechanisms, his ontology is in the material layer in the system of Sadraian thought. And he does not believe in an immaterial thing, and although it is close in meaning, the notion of unseen is different in the ontology of each of these two thinkers.