عنوان مقاله [English]
Joseph Schacht a German Orientalist, has carried out extensive studies on Islamic jurisprudence. According to his view, Islamic law is the essence of Islamic thought, and jurisprudence has incorporated imported materials into its own culture, that has become a unique phenomenon, despite the fact that it has influenced by other legal systems like ancient Rome, the Talmudic-Jewish rights, and Iran's Sassanid era. This article seeks to answer the question of how Schacht's view on Islamic jurisprudence is in terms of the tendency of social knowledge. Schacht, with the help of the historical and methodological presuppositions of Goldziher in his study of Islamic jurisprudence of the early Islamic period, breaks the historical connection between hadith and jurisprudence by referring to the phenomenon of the "common link". In his view, the hadiths do not have a real foundation and they are fake. With this argument, Schacht emphasizes that this knowledge is an import. He also recognizes jurisprudence as a social knowledge that governs the Muslim community and its core is social justice. The rules of jurisprudence are social laws that apply to the agent. Hence, the core of jurisprudence’s system of thought is the agent and agent-centeredness. Therefore, jurisprudential knowledge, while being a social knowledge, consists of idiographic theories. This knowledge does not claim universality and due to the Quranic rulings which, of course, have been derived from the Qur'an in certain cases and originally have their roots in the west, is dedicated to the Muslim community. The totality of these views, despite his praise from jurisprudence, places him in the position of non-empathetic view about Muslim social knowledge.