عنوان مقاله [English]
Ulama (scholars) of shi’i Islam had always been a medium to transfer religion to the mass. Although it has been a case from the rise of Islam, institution of Marja’i Taqlid had been formed recently. The establishment of the office of Marja’i Taqlid is concurrent to the formation and development of the theory of imitating (taqlid) the most learned (a’lam). There are many other factors which helped establishment of the office of Marja’ Taqlid, from which we can name: defeat of Akhbaris (traditionalists) by Usulis (rationalist) in the late 12th hijri century; development of the theory of paying Khums (one fifth) to the most learned Mujtahid (a high rank Islamic scholar); centralization of the religious authority in Atabat (holy shrines of Iraq); Fatwas (legal ruling) for Jihad (religious war) against Russia during Russo-Persian wars. The transition from local ulama to a centralized office of Marja’iyyat, had have many social and political consequences, from which we can name Mirza-ye Shirazi’s fatwa for prohibition of the use of tobacco. In this paper we investigate the process of formation of office of Marja’i Taqlid from a historical intellectual and social perspective.