عنوان مقاله [English]
Religious scholars have always played the intermediate role in transferring religious teachings to people. However, the formation of the intermediary institution of marja’iyat taqlid, as a centralized institution with a structure and hierarchy, is less than two hundred years old. The formation of the marja’iyat taqlid institution has been linked with the formation of the theory of ijtihad and the imitation (taqlid) and development of the theory of imitation of A'alam (the most knowledgeable). This theory, with the help of some political, social and economic factors, led to the formation of the institution of marja’iyat taqlid in the Shiite world. One of the factors contributing to the formation of this institution is the development of the theory of ijtihad and imitation of A'alam, following the theoretical and political defeat of the Akhbaris from Usulis - in the late 12th and early 13th centuries AH. In addition, the stabilization of the payment of khums to the mujtahids and A'alam mujtahids and the concentration of religious marja’iyat in Iraq provided the necessary economic and social conditions for the emergence of a centralized and somewhat bureaucratic institution. The transformation of the scholars of countries into a central institution of marja’iyat taqlid was followed by dramatic results in the political and social field. In this article, the historical process of intellectual and social developments that provided the conditions for the formation of the marja’iyat taqlid institution, is discussed.